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PATHOLOGY KEY POINTS

Osteoarthritis is a common painful degenerative and inflammatory disorder (20 % of the canine population over 1 year old) affecting joint synovium, cartilage and underlying bone1,2

It is essentially secondary to congenital or acquired musculoskeletal disorders such as joint dysplasia, osteochondrosis dissecans and patellar luxation or after trauma and surgery2.

Risk factors: age, large- and giant-breeds, castrated male, weight, distraction index 3, 4

Joint arthrosis.png

DIAGNOSIS, ASSESMENT AND PROGNOSIS

 

 

Based on :

  • clinical examination and history of chronic pain, lameness, functional disability and reduced quality of life²
  • evaluation of pain with validated scales and muscle palpation 5, 6, 7
  • evaluation of locomotion (range of motion, lameness, etc.)6, 8
  • radiography (differential diagnosis) 6, 7

Regular assessments to evaluate evolution and adapt treatment5.

Osteoarthritis cannot be cured but long-term management is possible.2,7

  1. Knudson CB and Knudson W. Cartilage proteoglycans. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2001;12(2):69-78.
  2. Bali J.P. et al. Biochemical Basis of the Pharmacologic Action of Chondroitin Sulfates on the Osteoarticular System. Seminars Arthritis Rheum. 2001;31(1):58-68.
  3. Legendre F. et al. Chondroitin sulfate modulation of matrix and inflammatory gene expression in IL-1b-stimulated chondrocytes - study in hypoxic alginate bead cultures. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage. 2008;16:105-114.
  4. Denuziere A. et al. Capillary electrophoresis of glycosaminoglycan-derived disaccharides : Application to stability studies of glycosaminoglycan chitosan complexes. In Electrophoresis. 1997;18:745-750.
  5. Andriamanalijaona R. et al. Comparative Effects of 2 Antioxidants, Selenomethionine and Epigallocatechin-Gallate, on Catabolic and Anabolic Gene Expression of Articular Chondrocytes. J Rheumatol. 2005;32:10.
  6. Segal O., Bousquet E., Efficacy of a chondroitin sulfate-based product on canine osteoarthritis, WSAVA Congress, Lyon (FR) 1999
  7. Segal O. Efficacy of Fortiflex in the prevention of osteoarthrosis in dogs. SCIVAC Milan 2001
  8. Bardet,J.F. Efficacy of Fortiflex in the prevention of osteoarthrosis in dogs, ESVOT & world orthopaedic veterinary congress Munich 2002
  9. Ronca F. et al. Anti-inflammatory activity of chondroitin sulfate. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage. 1998;6 (Supplement A):14-21.
  10. Kurz B. et al. Dietary vitamins and selenium diminish the development of mechanically induced osteoarthritis and increase the expression of antioxidative enzymes in the knee articular of STR/1N mice. Osteoarthritis and cartilage. 2002;10:119-126.
  11. Felt O. et al. Chitosan: a unique polysaccharide for drug delivery. Drug Dev. Ind. Pharm. 1998;24(11):979-993
  12. Kotzé A.F. et al. Effect of the degree of quaternization of N-trimethyl chitosan chloride on the permeability of intestinal epithelial cells,  Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 1999;47:269-274