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PATHOLOGY KEY POINTS

  • Prevalence: 22-44 % dogs overweight or obese1,2 and 0.4-1.4 % dogs with diabetes mellitus3,4,5. Type 1 diabetes (insulin deficiency) is more common in dogs (>50%)3,4.
  • Obesity is the main risk factor for type 2 diabetes and increases the risks of pancreatitis, a major risk factor of type 1 diabetes3.
  • Overweight/obesity depends on many factors including gender (females at higher risk), being neutered, increasing age, breed (retriever), diet and lifestyle2. On top of obesity, genetics (breeds like Australian terrier, Schnauzer and Samoyed at higher risks of diabetes), insulitis and pancreatitis are the main risk factors for diabetes3. Gestational diabetes also exists in dogs3.

DIAGNOSIS, ASSESMENT AND PROGNOSIS

Clinical diagnosis: obesity or weight loss, polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia3.

Serum and urine analysis: persistent hyperglycemia and glycosuria and high level of fructosamine3,6.

UNDER IDEAL

  1. Ribs, lumbar vertebrae, pelvic bones and all bony prominences evident from a distance. No discernible body fat. Obvious loss of muscle mass.
  2. Ribs, lumbar vertebrae and pelvic bones easily visible. No palpable fat. Some evidence of other bony prominences. Minimal loss of muscle mass.
  3. Ribs easily palpated and may be visible with no palpable fat. Tops of lumbar vertebrae visible. Pelvic bones becoming prominent. Obvious waist and abdominal tuck.


 

 

IDEAL

  1. Ribs easily palpable, with minimal fat covering. Waist easily noted, viewed from above. Abdominal tuck evident.
  2. Ribs palpable without excess fat covering. Waist observed behind ribs when viewed from above. Abdomen tucked up when viewed from side.

OVER IDEAL

  1. Ribs palpable with slight excess fat covering. Waist is discernible viewed from above but is not prominent. Abdominal tuck apparent.
  2. Ribs palpable with difficulty; heavy fat cover. Noticeable fat deposits over lumbar area and base of tail. Waist absent or barely visible. Abdominal tuck may be present.
  3. Ribs not palpable under very heavy fat cover, or palpable only with significant pressure. Heavy fat deposits over lumbar area and base of tail. Waist absent. No abdominal tuck. Obvious abdominal distention may be present.
  4. Massive fat deposits over thorax, spine and base of tail. Waist and abdominal tuck absent. Fat deposits on neck and limbs. Obvious abdominal distention.

German A, et al. Comparison of a bioimpedance monitor with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry for noninvasive estimation of percentage body fat in dogs. AJVR 2010;71:393-398.
Jeusette I, et al. Effect of breed on body composition and comparison between various methods to estimate body composition in dogs. Res Vet Sci 2010;88:227-232.
Kealy RD, et al. Effects of diet restriction on life span and age-related changes in dogs. JAVMA 2002;220:1315-1320.
Laflamme DP. Development and validation of a body condition score system for dogs. Canine Pract 1997;22:10-15.
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If not managed, obesity can lead to health problems like arthritis, cardiovascular disorders, endocrinal disorders, dermatological diseases, anesthetic complications and early mortality1,7. Diabetes can lead to complications like ketoacidosis and decrease life expectancy but the prognosis is good when the disease is well managed3.

In order to propose different speeds of weight loss

Depending on the formula used for feeding rations, we can propose 3 speeds of weight loss :

  • Very quick weight loss - High restriction with W1: 50% of daily requirement for ideal BW,
  • Quick weight loss - Moderate restriction with W1: 65% of daily requirement for ideal BW,
  • Soft weight loss – Light restriction with W2: 65% of daily requirement for current BW.

Thanks to these 3 different programs, the vet can adapt the level of restriction, satiety, palatability according to the profile of the patient (and the profile of the owner : ability to recognise obese status and ability to comply with the program).

In order to propose weight loss and weight control

For weight control management, the energy restriction has not to be so strong compared to weight loss period. That is why the 2 products propose different levels of energy density.
Palatability is essential for compliance in the long term: that is why W2 has more fat and less fibres.
Coat repair is also required after the weight loss period. Levels of omega-6 and omega-3 are higher in W2.

Because the 2 diseases are often associated.
Because the nutritional management of these 2 diseases is based on the same principle: HP-LC formulation with low glycemic index.

  1. Sandøe P, Palmer C, Corr S, Astrup A, Bjørnvad CR. Canine and feline obesity: a One Health perspective. Vet Rec. 2014;175(24):610-6.
  2. Colliard L et al. Risk Factors for Obesity in Dogs in France. J. Nutr. ; 2006;136 (7) 1951S-1954S
  3. Nelson RW, Reusch CE. Animal models of disease: classification and etiology of diabetes in dogs and cats. J Endocrinol. 2014;222(3):T1-9.
  4. Rand JS, Fleeman LM, Farrow HA, Appleton DJ, Lederer R. Canine and feline diabetes mellitus: nature or nurture? J Nutr. 2004;134(8 Suppl):2072S-2080S
  5. Mattin M, O'Neill D, Church D, McGreevy PD, Thomson PC, Brodbelt D. An epidemiological study of diabetes mellitus in dogs attending first opinion practice in the UK. Vet Rec. 2014;174(14):3496
  6. Rucinsky R, Cook A, Haley S, Nelson R, Zoran DL, Poundstone M; American Animal Hospital Association. AAHA diabetes management guidelines. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 2010;46(3):215-24.
  7. Laflamme DP. Companion Animals Symposium: Obesity in dogs and cats: What is wrong with being fat? J Anim Sci. 2012 May;90(5):1653-62