Construyendo el futuro de la salud animal
Costa Rica

FAQ

Veterinary HPM has conducted clinical efficacy studies in 350 dogs and 250 cats.

If we include the number of days of study for each animal, we obtain:

21,000 equivalent days of study in DIET dog.

16,000 equivalent days of study in DIET cat.

 

"Veterinary Global Care" represents the one of the pillar of our product concept, in addition to “Nutrition for carnivores”. It is the main differentiation – apart from our product composition (HP-LC) compared to other products and can be resumed in 4 key points:

  • Management of primary condition
  • Support of concurrent conditions
  • Restoration of body composition
  • Additional health benefits

The Veterinary Global Care concept is specific to each product and is a sumary of the product benefits and advantages. Veterinary HPM go further than just taking care of a specific health condition/s, the Dietetic range deliver a holistic health approach, taking into account the general health of the animal and protection of its main organs and functions.

The combination of our low carb-high protein formulation and the addition of functional ingredients allow us to claim additional health benefits that are not directly linked to the disorder and the associated parnut that the food is intended to be used for.

A lot of know-how from Virbac nutraceuticals as Fortiflex®, Enterogelan®, etc has been applied to this new range. Please refer to the Veterinary Global Care approach for each product to know which aspects are covered.

Note that point number 4 (Additional health benefits) is referring to the additional health benefits that are transversal to the diet and preventive range.

What is the role of Lactobacilli?

For the DIGESTIVE TOLERANCE:

Mechanism of action

Benefits

  • Stimulation of the benefic flora
  • Bacteriostatic effect on pathogenic bacteria
  • Non specific immunostimulation of the digestive mucosa
  • Maintenance / restauration of the intestinal flora balance
  • Prevention of the digestive troubles risks

 

What is the role of Montmorillonite and sepiolite?

For the DIGESTIVE TOLERANCE: Montmorillonite (cats) – Sepiolite (dogs)

Mechanism of action

Benefits

  • Covering power : protection of the digestive mucosa against chemical and bacterial attacks
  • Adsorbent power : towards bacterias and their toxins, viruses
  • Absorbent power : liquids, gas
  • Anti acid power
  • Limitation of inflammatory & infectious processes
  • Standardization of faeces smell and consistency
  • Limitation of digestive troubles risks

 

 

What is the role of Fructo oligosaccharides (FOS)?

For the DIGESTIVE TOLERANCE:

Mechanism of action

Benefits

  • Stimulation of the benefic flora growth
  • Production of short-chain fatty acids (which are then energy sources for colonic mucosa cells)
  • Promotion of an acidic pH in the digestive tract
  • Inhibition of pathogenic bacteria
  • Limitation Balance of the digestive flora
  • Reinforcement of the digestive mucosa
  • Reduction of the faeces smell

 

What is the role of Lignocellulose?

For the DIGESTIVE TOLERANCE:

Mechanism of action

Benefits

  • Made of a specific fibre network (« fibrillated fibre)
  • High water holding capacity
  • Promotion of villi development à mucus and enzymes production
  • Increase of nutrients digestibility
  • Improvement of faeces consistency
  • Help to hairball in control in cats

 

What is the role of Psyllium?

For the DIGESTIVE TOLERANCE:

Mechanism of action

Benefits

  • High water holding capacity
  • Both gut stimulatory and antispasmodic effects
  • Improvement of faeces consistency
  • Regulation of digestive transit

 

What is the role of vitamin E?

For the IMMUNE SUPPORT:

Mechanism of action

Benefits

  • Antioxidant : reactive oxygen species scavenger
  • Protection of phospholipids in cell membranes
  • Inhibition of PGE2 production
  • Maintenance and stimulation of immune system in ageing animals
  • Stimulation of vaccine response
  • Increase of resistance against infectious diseases

 

What is the role of chondroitin?

For JOINT SUPPORT: Chondroitin sulphate (CS) + Chitosan

Mechanism of action

Benefits

  • CS : structural, metabolic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory effects in cartilage
  • Chitosan :
    • protection of ingested CS against digestive enzymes
    • Paracellular passage of CS through digestive mucosa

 

  • Help to preserve cartilage integrity
  • Limitation of joint ageing
  • Help for a good functional postoperative recovery

 

 

What is the role of L-carnitine?

For BODY WEIGHT / COMPOSITION CONTROL:

Mechanism of action

Benefits

  • Key element of lipids catabolism for energy production
  • Carrier for long chain fatty acids into the mitochondria
  • Limitation of fatty tissue deposit
  • Help for fat mass loss and lean mass preservation during weight loss

 

What is the role of Chitosan?

For HEALTHY RENAL FUNCTION:

Mechanism of action

Benefits

Digestive phosphorus binder

  • Reduction of phosphorus digestibility
  • Help control of serum concentration of phosphorus

 

In the study presented at the SEVC Congress, Barcelona, Oct 2015, we showed that chitosan, when added in a pet food, is able to reduce the dietary phosphorus digestibility, and therefore could be used as a phosphorus binder. According to its mechanism of action and literature, chitosan is also able to bind various nitrogen toxins.

What is the role of the extract of dried Artichoke leave?

For URINARY HEALTH: Extract of artichoke leaves (source of cynarine)

Mechanism of action

Benefits

  • Soft diuretic effect
  • Decrease of the specific gravity (SG) without significant changes in other urinary parameters
  • Urine dilution
  • Reduction of the risk of crystals/stones formation
  • Reduction of the risk of inflammation (cystitis)

To calculate the energy need (EN) of dogs and cats, We use these formulas (they are in the FEDIAF nutritional guidelines):

  • in dogs (Kronfeld's formula): EN = k x 156 x BW 0.667
  • in cats: EN = k x 60 x BW

k (corrective factor) may vary according to the health status, activity level, and physiological status.

NB: normal activity in dogs = 1 to 2 hours of exercise per day.

We use the ME calculated according to official guidelines (NRC 2006).

We are choosing our sources among those with the highest nutritional quality (amino acid profile, low amount of ash) available in the market and authorized for use in pet nutrition.

The animal protein sources used in Veterinary HPM come from animals fit for human consumption. They belong to the Category n°3, which refers to European Regulations (169/2009 and 142/2011) and which guarantees their sanitory quality. No animal is specifically bred to produce these raw materials. The European origin is guaranteed as the animal species, and the final composition is constant (nutritional guarantees).

The choice of animal protein sources is based on their nutritional guarantees: level of protein, level of ash/minerals, especially calcium and phosphorus, amino acid profile, protein digestibility (in vitro measurement).

The protein digestibility of our sources is very high (guarantee >90%), and the amino acid profile is balanced. We do not use the Low quality protein because we could not achieve high protein diets without impacting the mineral level. Thanks to our high quality protein we can propose a range of products which have higher protein amount than competitors, and respect optimum minerals level.

Veterinary HPM has today the lowest carbohydrate level available in the veterinary market.

  • The VETERINARY HPM DIETETIC CAT RANGE contains 25% more protein and 30% less carbohydrates than the average of the diets available on the market (excluding renal diets).
  • The VETERINARY HPM DIETETIC DOG RANGE contains 40% more protein and 38% less carbohydrates than the average of the diets available on the market (excluding renal diets).

In average the Veterinary HPM DIETETIC FULL RANGE contains 34% more proteins and 35% less carbohydrates than the average of the diets available on the market (excluding Renal diets).

Starch is useful during the manufacturing process of dry diets: it is responsible of the texture and hardness of the kibbles. But a high quantity is not necessary: we have demonstrated with Veterinary HPM that kibbles manufacturing is possible with less than 15 % starch. Veterinary HPM™ use high quality sources of starch: in addition to purified potato starch and pea, the range is also formulated with rice. Veterinary HPM diet range is free of wheat, maize and gluten.

Cats and dogs are carnivores. Starch is not an essential nutrient for carnivores and they do not need starch as an energy source, they prefer and are more adapted to use proteins and lipids as energy sources. Moreover, dogs and especially cats have difficulties to properly digest starch.

For optimal digestibility and digestive safety of the diet, and in order to respect the carnivorous nature of cats and dogs, we limit as much as possible the rate of starch and, as a consequence, the rate of cereals in Veterinary HPM.

With Veterinary HPM, our choice is to be closer to natural preferences and needs of dogs and cats. Low carbohydrate - High protein diets are the free selection of both dogs and cats. There is already many scientific evidence showing the benefits of High protein diets in cats and dogs (body weight and body composition management, insulin sensitivity, immune support, urinary tract health…)

Official guidelines give minimum, not optimum, values for essential nutrients. There is no identified maximum (deleterious) value for protein in carnivores.

High protein diet does not mean excess in proteins. Veterinary HPM diets are formulated to achieve the ideal balance between protein and carb, with priority given to proteins.

NFE is a calculation, from the results of analysis of the pet food.
NFE = 100 - moisture - protein - fat - ash - crude cellulose
Theoretically, NFE should represent the digestible carbohydrates of the diet, broadly starch + other polysaccharides + short-chain sugars (called in an analysis "total sugars")
But actually, in NFE, there are also all the fermentable fibres (all the soluble ones + some insoluble fibres because they are partially fermentable).
Starch is the result of an analysis from the pet food. There is no link between this value and the calculation of NFE.

Trials were carried out at home in around 2000 different cats and dogs.

Results:

In dogs:

 

W2

Weight loss & control

JOINT & MOBILITY

GASTRO

DERMATO

ALL

KIDNEY

Duration of the trial

2 months

2 months

1 month

2 months

1 month

1 month

Number of dogs

40

53

47

46

30

52

Dogs’ profile

Overweight

Mobility disorders

Digestive disorders

Skin/coat disorders

Healthy

Old & fussy

% of dogs that showed a good response to palatability

90

86

95

95

96

82

 

In cats:

 

U3

WIB

W2

Weight loss & control

GASTRO

DERMATO

KIDNEY

Duration of the trial

2 weeks

2 months

1 month

2 months

1 month

Number of cats

27

20

47

46

60

Cats’ profile

healthy

Overweight

Digestive disorders

Skin/coat disorders

Old & fussy

% of cats that showed a good response to palatability

       96

98

89

88

77

 

So, the palatability is always high with Veterinary HPM diets, as soon as the diet transition is over, and it keeps high (or even increased) with time.

WEIGHT

In respect with the Directive n° 2008/38, these diets are first intended for « the reduction of excessive body weight ». The current request is « Low energy density ». The recommended duration of use is « Until the target body weight is achieved ».
Secondly, the diets are intended for « the regulation of glucose supply (diabetes mellitus) ». The current request is « Low level of glucose-releasing carbohydrate ». The recommended duration of use is « Initially up to 6 months. It is recommended that a veterinarian’s opinion be sought before use or before extending the period of use. »

JOINT

In respect with the Directive n° 2008/38, this diet is first intended for « the support of the metabolism of joints in the case of osteoarthritis». The requests are « Minimum dry matter content of total omega-3 fatty acids 3.3% and of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) 0.38%, and adequate level of vitamin E». The recommended duration of use is « Initially up to 3 months. It is recommended that a veterinarian’s opinion be sought before use or before extending the period of use».

DIGESTIVE

In respect with the Directive n° 2008/38, this diet is first intended for « the reduction of acute intestinal absorptive disorders » and « compensation for maldigestion ». The current requests are « Highly digestible ingredients and increased level of electrolytes ». The recommended duration of use is « 1 to 12 weeks, but lifetime in the case of chronic pancreatic insufficiency».
Secondly, the diet is intended for « Nutritional restoration, convalescence». The current request is « High energy density, high concentrations of essential nutrients and highly digestible ingredients». The recommended duration of use is « Until restoration is achieved».

DERMATOLOGY

In respect with the Directive n° 2008/38, this diet is first intended for « the support of skin function in the case of dermatosis and excessive loss of hair». The current request is « High level of essential fatty acids ». The recommended duration of use is « Initially up to 2 months. It is recommended that a veterinarian’s opinion be sought before use or before extending the period of use».

KIDNEY

CAT:

In respect with the Directive n° 2008/38, this diet is first intended for « the support of renal function in case of chronic renal insufficiency (or temporary) ». The updated requests are « High quality protein restricted levels of phosphorus (maximum 6.2g/kg complete petfood with a moisture content of 12%), and crude protein maximum 320g/kg complete petfood with a moisture content of 12% ». The recommended duration of use is « Initially up to 6 months. It is recommended that a veterinarian’s opinion be sought before use or before extending the period of use».

DOG:

In respect with the Directive n° 2008/38, this diet is first intended for « the support of renal function in case of chronic renal insufficiency (or temporary)». The updated requests are « High quality protein restricted levels of phosphorus (maximum 5g/kg complete petfood with a moisture content of 12%), and crude protein maximum 220g/kg complete petfood with a moisture content of 12% ». The recommended duration of use is « Initially up to 6 months. It is recommended that a veterinarian’s opinion be sought before use or before extending the period of use».

UROLOGY

CAT U1:

In respect with the Directive n° 2008/38, this diet is intended for « the dissolution of struvite stones». The current requests are « Urine acidifying properties and low level of magnesium». The recommended duration of use is « 5 to 12 weeks » plus « It is recommended that a veterinarian’s opinion be sought before use or before extending the period of use».

CAT U2:

In respect with the Directive n° 2008/38, this diet is intended for 3 kinds of diseases:
-«Dissolution of struvite stones». The current requests are « Urine acidifying properties and low level of magnesium». The recommended duration of use is « 5 to 12 weeks » plus « It is recommended that a veterinarian’s opinion be sought before use or before extending the period of use».
-« Reduction of struvite stone recurrence ». The current requests are « Urine acidifying properties and moderate level of magnesium». The recommended duration of use is « up to 6 months» plus « It is recommended that a veterinarian’s opinion be sought before use or before extending the period of use».
-« Reduction of oxalate stones formation ». The current requests are « Low level of calcium, low level of vitamin D, and urine alkalising properties ». The recommended duration of use is « up to 6 months» plus « It is recommended that a veterinarian’s opinion be sought before use or before extending the period of use».

CAT U3:

In respect with the Directive n° 2008/38, this diet is intended for 2 kinds of diseases:
-« Reduction of struvite stone recurrence ». The current requests are « Urine acidifying properties and moderate level of magnesium». The recommended duration of use is « up to 6 months» plus « It is recommended that a veterinarian’s opinion be sought before use or before extending the period of use».
-« Reduction of oxalate stones formation ». The current requests are « Low level of calcium, low level of vitamin D, and urine alkalising properties ». The recommended duration of use is « up to 6 months» plus « It is recommended that a veterinarian’s opinion be sought before use or before extending the period of use».
NB: Feline idiopathic cystitis is not listed in Directive 2008/38.

DOG:

In respect with the Directive n° 2008/38, this diet is first intended for « the dissolution of struvite stones» and « the reduction of struvite stone recurrence ». The current requests are « Urine acidifying properties and low level of magnesium». The recommended durations of use are « 5 to 12 weeks » and « Up to 6 months » plus « It is recommended that a veterinarian’s opinion be sought before use or before extending the period of use».

Parnut stands for particular nutritional objective, defined by the commission directive 2008/38/EC, 2008. They are being reworked at this morment, potential changes will occur in the near future.

On the Veterinary HPM packging you will find the specific parnut in the lower left hand side under “Dietetic indications”. All our products respect the parnuts, which is not the case for all pet fooders, with the consequence that they cannot sell their food as “dietetic food”, but “maintenance food” (but this can remain hidden, as packaging design is often in line with the rest of the range).

W1 (Weight loss and diabetes):

-This diet is intended for weight loss program in overweight dogs/cats, with or without concurrent diabetes.

-Thanks to its specific high fibre formula, this diet is also suitable in case of constipation or responsive-fibre colitis.

-Thanks to its specific low fat formula, this diet is also suitable in case of hyperlipidemia.

W2 (Weight loss and control):

-This diet is intended for soft weight loss program in dogs/cats with maximum 30% overweight, and no concurrent diabetes.

-This diet is intended for the management of diabetes in dogs/cats with optimal BW.

-This diet is intended for body weight maintenance, after a weight loss program with Vet HPM W1 or W2.

-Thanks to its specific high fibre formula, this diet is also suitable in case of constipation or responsive-fibre colitis.

DOG W1 vs W2

The main differences are in some nutrient contents:

Analyt Constit (% as fed)

W1

W2

Fat

Cellulose

Total dietary fibre

Metabolisable Energy (kcal/100g)

11.5

15

23

299

13

9

18

328

These differences may explain different palatability and satiety levels with the 2 diets.

CAT W1 vs W2

The main differences are in some nutrient contents:

Analyt Constit (% as fed)

W1

W2

Fat

Cellulose

Total dietary fibre

Metabolisable Energy (kcal/100g)

11

12

17

318

13

8

14

340

These differences may explain different palatability and satiety levels with the 2 diets.

First, a weight loss program must be implemented. Depending on the overweight rate and the desired speed of weight loss, 2 different diets and 3 programs can be proposed:

W1 with high restriction (50% of daily requirement for ideal BW) or moderate restriction (65% of daily requirement for ideal BW).

Joint & Mobility with soft weight loss program (light restriction: 65% of daily requirement for current BW).

Once the ideal BW is achieved, the dog can be fed with Veterinary HPM Joint & Mobility dog diet in the long term.

This complex refers to Fortiflex® composition:

In this diet, the content of both chondroitin sulfate and chitosan is 1240 mg/kg food. This content provides 15 mg/kgBW, which is the recommended dose of Fortiflex.

This complex refers to a specific association of ingredients in order to help secure the digestive function and improve the digestive tolerance in dogs/cats with digestive disorders.

Lactobacilli as probiotics and FOS as prebiotics favour the development and maintenance of the beneficial colonic flora.

Lignocellulose and psyllium help digestive transit normalisation and normal faeces production.

Butyrate and nucleotides help repair of the digestive mucosa and the normalisation of digestion and absorption functions.

Butyrate:
-Butyrate increases the digestive abilities (for example, it increases gastric acid and total pancreatic secretions. It also increases activity of brush-border enzymes (peptidases, sucrases). As a consequence, butyrate supplementation significantly improves the apparent digestibility of nutrients.
-Butyrate stimulates digestive mucosa repair (butyrate modify the microstructure of the small and large intestines: the crypt depth, the villi height and the mucosa thickness increase largely with butyrate supplementation). As a consequence, the intestinal absorptive surface is restablished.
- Butyrate favours the normalisation of the colonic flora (Butyrate maintains an acidic pH in the intestinal lumina. This acidic pH is a key determinant of effectiveness in the control of undesirable bacteria. Adding butyrate promotes greater mean values in the desirable/undesirable bacteria ratio, with a decrease in the proportion of coliform bacteria and a simultaneous increase of lactobacilli).
- Butyrate helps support the intestinal barrier effect (butyrate increases the number of colonic goblet cells, the production of mucin glycoproteins, and the thickness of the mucous layer. It also helps to better control of the intestinal epithelial permeability by increasing the expression of tight junction proteins).

Nucleotides:
Nucleotides have many functions and benefits in dogs/cats with chronic digestive disorders:
-Nucleotides stimulate digestive mucosa repair (they promote intestinal growth and maturation after injury. Villus height, crypt depth, total protein and DNA content of the gut becomes higher with nucleotides supplementation).
-Nucleotides favour the normalisation of the colonic flora (they modify the type and growth of the intestinal microflora, resulting in higher percentages of fecal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. They lower the pH of the colonic content and suppress the proliferation of Gram negative enterobacteria).
-Nucleotides help support the intestinal barrier effect (they increase the number of colonic goblet cells, the production of mucin glycoproteins, and the thickness of the mucous layer. They limit the development of undesirable bacteria. They reinforce the local immune system).

Hypoallergy diets are intended for the reduction of ingredients and nutrient intolerances in pets with adverse food reactions, whereas dermatology support diets are intended for support of skin function in the case of of dermatosis and excessive loss of hair (EU Commission Directive 2008/38/EC).

Looking at the prevalence of cutaneous diseases, 94% of dermatoses are unrelated to food allergies (64% are attributed to non-allergic such as parasitic, mycotic and infectious dermatoses; 30% are attributed to non-food related allergies such as flea bite allergy or atopy).

Only 6% of cutaneous diseases is estimated to result from adverse food reactions (Olivry and Muller, 2017).

In many practices the sales of hypoallergy or elimination diets can drastically outweigh those of dermatology support diets. Given that this is not in line with the prevalence of cutaneous disease, it could be concluded that significant numbers of dogs and cats are not being fed the most suitable diet.

Hypoallergy diets often contain lower levels of protein, so they are not always formulated to manage skin and coat disease, as protein is essential in the management of these cases. In consideration that protein represents around 95% of the hair structure in cats and dogs, and that 25% to 30% of daily protein intake is systemically used for skin and coat renewal requirements (Roudebush and Schoenherr, 2010), it is not logical to feed hypoallergy diets in many of these cases.

The minimum recommended protein intake for healthy dogs is 18% (FEDIAF, 2014), whereas the protein requirement for skin and coat recovery is between 25% and 30% (Roudebuch and Schoenherr, 2010). The dry matter content of hypoallergy diets on the market varies, with some as low as 15,5%.

References and recommended reading:

Olivry, T. Muller, R.S. (2017) Critically appraised topic on adverse food reactions of companion animals (3): prevalence of cutaneous adverse food reactions in dogs and cats. BMC Veterinary Research, 13, 51.

Roudebush, P. and Schoenherr, W.D. (2010) Skin and hair disorders. In: Hand, M.S., Thatcherm C.D., Remillard, R.L., Roudebush, P. and Lewis, L.D. Small Animal Clinical Nutrition. Mark Morris Associates, Kansas. Pp 637-643.

FEDIAF (2014) Nutritional guidelines for complete and complementary pet foods for cats and dogs, 16-21.

This diet is intended for dogs/cats with chronic skin/coat disorders: dermatosis, dermatitis including atopic dermatitis and other skin and coat diseases except for food intolerances.

94% of all dermatoses are independant to food allergies*, therefore only the 6% remaining should be traeted with Veterinary HPM Hypoallergy.

*Olivry T, Muller RS. Critically appraised topic on adverse food reactions of companion animals (3): prevalence of cutaneous adverse food reactions in dogs and cats. BMC Vet Res. 2017;13:51.

DOG

This COMPLEX refers to Megaderm® composition.

This diet, thanks to its mixture of different fat sources, provides the amounts of the different EFAs recommended in Megaderm:

  • LA + GLA = 2.7% (> 1% food, which corresponds to MEGADERM dose in dogs)
  • EPA + DHA = 0.5% (> 0.2% food, which corresponds to MEGADERM dose in dogs)
  • (LA+GLA):(EPA+DHA) ratio = 5 (the same as in MEGADERM)

CAT

This COMPLEX refers to Megaderm® composition.

This diet, thanks to its mixture of different fat sources, provides the amounts of the different EFAs recommended in Megaderm:

  • LA + GLA = 3.5% (> 2.9% food, which corresponds to MEGADERM dose in cats)
  • EPA + DHA = 0.8% (> 0.6% food, which corresponds to MEGADERM dose in cats)
  • (LA+GLA):(EPA+DHA) ratio = 5 (the same as in MEGADERM)

The fatty acid contents in these diets may explain their efficiency in reducing clinical signs linked to skin inflammation.

In clinical studies, it has been demonstrated that licking and itching frequencies were significantly reduced as soon as 2 weeks of exclusive feeding with these diets in pets with chronic skin/coat disorders.

 

KIDNEY DOG Voorjaarsdagen 2017

KIDNEY DOG Voorjaarsdagen 2017

These diets do not have the same objective, they have complementary actions:

with U1: dissolution of struvite stone in the short time

with W2: prevention of struvite and oxalate recurrences in the long term

with U3: feline idiopathic cystitis in the long term

 

U1

U2

U3

-Protein (%CM)

-Metab Energy (kcal/100g)

-Total Omega-3 (%CM)

-EPA+DHA (%CM)

-Urinary pH

-Str RSS

-Ox RSS

-Acidifying substances

-Potassium citrate

-Green tea concentrate

44

369

1

0.3

6.0 – 6.5

< 1

< 10

Yes

Yes

No

44

348

0.8

0

6.0 – 6.5

< 1

< 10

Yes

Yes

No

44

348

1.1

0.4

6.0 – 6.5

< 2.5

< 10

Yes

Yes

Yes

 

U1 is not adapted for the long term management: it is too concentrated (high fat, low fibre, high energy). It is also very high in sodium and such a high content is not useful in the long term and could be deleterious.

U2 is mainly intended for cats who are healthy but subject to urolithiasis, to help limit recurrences. That is why it is not supplemented in fish oil (source of EPA/DHA).

But U2 is also able to dissolve struvite crystals.

U3 is mainly intended for cats with chronic cystitis. That is why it is supplemented in fish oil (source of anti-inflammatory omega-3) and green tea concentrate (source of L-theanine, with relaxing properties). Because cystitis are often associated with crystals, U3 is also formulated to limit the risk of formation of both struvites and oxalates.

WIB means Water Intake and Behaviour.

It refers to the main characteristics of this diet to be effective in the management of feline lower urinary tract disease, especially feline idiopathic cystitis.

Water intake is stimulated by high protein and sodium contents.

Supplementation in green tea concentrate (rich in L-theanine) helps cats to cope with stressful situations (stress is a well-known key factor in pathogenesis of feline idiopathic cystitis).

It refers to the supplementation with green tea leave concentrate.

This supplement contains L-theanine which is well-known for its relaxing properties.

The supplementation with 0.26% concentrate provides 10 mg/kgBW of L-theanine which is the recommended dosage in Anxitane®.

Diet transition consists in the progressive incorporation of a new diet into the current one.

The aim is to ensure:

-The acceptance of the new pet food, because pets who are used to a specific diet could refuse the change.

-The digestive safety and the adaptation of the digestive flora (in prevention of digestive side effects, like soft faeces, odorous faeces or flatulence).

This is especially true with the change to Veterinary HPM diets because these products are completely different compared to usual products of the market, by the nature and the amount of their ingredients.

Even in case of acute disease, a minimum of 4-day diet transition should be applied:

1st day: 75% of the current diet + 25% of the new diet

2nd and 3rd day: 50% of the current diet + 50% of the new diet

4th day: 25% of the current diet + 75% of the new diet.

In some cases, especially in sensitive animals, the duration must be longer, till 2 or 3 weeks.